For the cheapest postage rates, bulk mailers such as mailing houses use postal contractors that are classed as Downstream Access (DSA). Bulk mail is collected and distributed by one of these DSA contractors then handed over to Royal Mail mail centres for final processing onto local delivery offices, where they are delivered. 
Until 1680 there was just one General Letter Office in London and Westminster to receive and deliver the mail that was bound for destinations outside London. There was no system or provision for the general distribution of letters or parcels within the city of London who’s population had now grown to around half a million people. 
In 1680 William Dockwra and his business partner, Robert Murray established The London Penny Post, a premier postal system whose function was to deliver mail within London and its immediate suburbs for the modest sum of one penny.  
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